Kirkoswald in 1837
Kirkoswald is situated in a beautiful vale on the Eden, fifteen miles from Carlisle. The church was dedicated to St. Oswald, the celebrated martyr and king of Northumberland ; and in the reign of King John belonged to Hugh de Morville, one of the murderers of Thomas a Becket. Near the town are the remains of an ancient castle, and a mansion called the College. A paper-mill and a mill for carding and spinning wool are the only manufactories. Township population in 1831 was 768. A weekly market is held on Thursday, and great markets on the Thursday before Whitsuntide, and August 1st.
Caleb Threlkeld, a famous botanist, was born here in 1675. John Aglionby, a learned divine, who had a considerable hand in the present translation of the New Testament, and Dr. Leake, the founder of the Westminster Lying-in Hospital, were natives of the adjoining parish of Ainstable. A peculiar wind, called the Helm-wind, sometimes blows with great fury in this part of the country. It is believed by some persons to be an electrical phenomenon.